Diabetes : Types of diabetes, Symptoms, Preventive Healthcare

 

Overview of Diabetes 

What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease in which the body’s potential to produce or respond to hormone insulin is damaged, causing abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates and raised levels of glucose in the blood.  


Blood sugar is the prime source of energy which comes from the meals you eat. Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas which enables glucose from nourishments (food) to get into your cells to be used for energy.


Sometimes your body may not produce sufficient insulin which makes glucose to block in your bloodstreams and doesn’t reach to the cells.


There are four types of diabetes; diabetes mellitus type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes.In addition, there are less common type of diabetes known as monogenic diabetes.


Although there is no cure for diabetes, you can take measures that will enable you regulate, manage blood sugar and stay health such exercise, eating well balanced food and herbal supplements curcumin and berberine.


Different types of diabetes

Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a disease where there is excess glucose floating in your blood. This happens when the cells in the body have becomes repellant to insulin or pancreas cannot produce sufficient insulin.


There are two types of diabetes mellitus, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. In both types, your body has difficult in circulating glucose from your blood into your cell. This result to raised level of sugar (glucose) in your blood and insufficient sugar in your cells.


Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes occurs due to insufficient insulin in the body. Type 1 diabetes appears due to autoimmunity, a process by which your immune system fights and demolish the beta cells in pancreas that secrets insulin.


Diabetes type 1 is very rare only 5% of people have been diagnosed with it. Diabetes type 1 is caused when the immune system which fights dangerous bacteria and viruses wrongly destroys the insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas.


Other likely causes of type 1 diabetes are genetic abnormality, exposure to viruses and environmental factors.  Most cases of diabetes type 1 are normally identified in youths and children. However, type 1 diabetes can occur at any age.


People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin regularly to survive.


Diabetes type 2

Type 2 diabetes is also known as non-insulin dependent. When the beta cell becomes insulin resistant the body increases the amount of insulin made to prevent the effect and to enable the level of blood sugar to stay normal.


Eventually the body cannot compensate enough insulin and that causes the level of blood sugar to shoot up.


Type 2 diabetes is mostly related with overweight and diet. Obese individuals are more resistant to insulin that increasing chances to get diabetes.


Quick facts :

Who’s at risk ? 

Diabetes
Source: https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/library/socialmedia/infographics.html

Common Types of diabetes in America (Infographic)

Common Types of diabetes in America (Infographic)       

Source :https://diabetesresearchconnection.org/types-diabetes-infographic/


Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes is where by blood glucose goes high to some pregnant women.


During pregnancy your body produces hormones that enable the growth of the baby. For instance, Hormone placental lactogen which is produced by the placenta increases insulin resistant.


When the level of insulin resistance becomes very powerful, your blood sugar levels rise up abnormally. Just like other types of diabetes, gestational diabetes impact on how your cells use glucose.This type of diabetes disappears after delivery.


However, if you had gestational diabetes during pregnancy, you are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.


Monogenic diabetes

Monogenic diabetes is uncommon type of diabetes that is caused by single gene abnormality.


Many cases of monogenic diabetes are inherited. Mostly, monogenic diabetes affects young youth.There are two main forms of monogenic diabetes which include; maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) and neonatal diabetes.


Maturity –onset diabetes of the young (MODY)

MODY is the most regular form of monogenic diabetes. It usually occurs in young people but sometimes is not recognized until adulthood. MODY can be severe but it all depend with the type of gene involved. There are at least nine different types of genes accountable for MODY.

Neonatal diabetes

This uncommon condition that appears in the first 6 months after birth.


Many babies with neonatal diabetes don’t grow excellent before birth and are born tiny for their age.


There are two types of neonatal diabetes; permanent neonatal diabetes, lifetime condition and transient neonatal diabetes which disappears during childhood but may return eventually.


 Common Natural ways of diabetes treatment.

Apart from guided meditation and supplements, diabetes treatments may also include therapies, and natural medication.


Some of the remedies are effective while others are not and can be dangerous. It is good to consult your doctor before you try both types of medicines.


Guided imagery relaxation remedy that creates an imaginary experience with the purpose of reaching focused and peaceful state of mind. This therapy can be used to reduce pain, boost sleep, toughen the immune system and improve individual sense of control.


This imagery include; Cd’s tapes or the individual may be instructed to visualize himself in a cool pleasant environment such as garden and sunny beach and cool ocean breeze. Guided imagery procedure enables your body to regulate blood sugar which enables you to manage your diabetes.


Vanadium is a compound found small amounts animals and plants. Research has showed that vanadium regulates glucose level to individuals with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. When patient with diabetes were given vanadium, they had moderate increase in insulin.


Plant foods the majority plant food are rich in minerals, fiber and vitamins. Research shows that some plant foods such Cinnamon, cloves, and coffee can have a dramatic effects in reducing inflammation and use of insulin that controls blood glucose.


Cinnamon can boost the level of glucose metabolism, activating insulin release. Specialist have found that clove oil   improves insulin work and lower blood sugar. A certain antioxidants compound called polyphenols found in coffee may improve insulin sensitivity and reduce risk of developing diabetes type 2.


Weight loss. Most case of diabetes are linked with obesity. Reducing even a small amount of body weight can boost your body level of sensing insulin. .Losing weight can help you manage your condition if already have diabetes type 2.


Signs and symptoms of diabetes

  • Excessive thirst (polydipsia) and frequent urination (polyuria). Excess glucose building up in the blood causes fluid to be dragged from the body tissues. If kidneys cannot moderate the excess glucose, then that excess blood sugar is eliminated through your urine.as a result, you may urinate more than routine which may leave thirsty.

  • Persistent infection especially in the urinary track or vagina. People whose diabetes is not properly regulated have high risk of developing infections. People with diabetes have excess glucose in the urine which promotes growth of bacterial that causes infection.

  • Weight loss. Individuals with diabetes have low level of insulin, this blocks the body from getting sugar from the bloodstream to cells to utilize for energy. When this happens the body starts to use stored fat for energy causing reduction in body weight, unexplained weight loss is mostly noticed in individual with prediabetes.

  • Excessive hunger.  Without sufficient insulin to move sugar to reach your cells, diabetes may prevents sugar from the food from reaching your cells leading to constant hunger.

  • Blurred vision. High blood glucose (sugar) drags fluid from lenses of your eyes. Diabetes can cause blood vessels to form in your retina and destroy established vessels .In most cases, these signs do not cause vision complication .However, if this symptoms grow unidentified they can cause vision loss and blindness.

  • Fatigue.  Many factors can contribute to fatigue. They include dehydration from frequent urination and body powerlessness to function properly, since it cannot use glucose needed for energy.

Alcohol and diabetes

Excessive amount of alcohol  reduces blood glucose level  especially for  individuals with type 1 diabetes.


On the other hand, average amount of alcohol  increases  blood  sugar.It is advisable  if you drink, do it irregularly  only when your  diabetes and blood glucose level are  well monitored.


In addition it is worthy to consult your doctor to check if drinking alcohol is safe for your health.


Effects of alcohol intake on people with diabetes 

  • Excess alcohol can reduce your blood glucose level sometimes causing it to drop to hazard level to individuals diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.
  • Alcohol has a lot of calories which makes it hard to shed weight.
  • Alcohol can tamper with effect of insulin in the blood and oral diabetes treatment.
  • Alcohol increases appetite level, which causes you to over eat and may cause difficult in blood glucose control.
  • Sweet wines and beer contain high level sugar and carbohydrates which may increase blood glucose.

Do and don’ts of diabetes and alcohol consumption

  • Do not take more than two bottles of alcohol in a day if you’re a man and one bottle of beer to women.
  • Drink liquor only with food.
  • Drink alcohol slowly.
  • Keep away from sweet and sugary drinks for example, sweet red and white wine.
  • Mix your drink with diet soft drinks or water.
  • Always wear a medical tag that says you have diabetes.

How to prevent diabetes

Diabetes is a persistence illness that affects many people worldwide.


Unconstrained cases of diabetes may cause vision loss and blindness, heart disease and other dangerous healthy complications. Prediabetes is a period where blood glucose levels are high but not very high to be diagnosed as diabetes.


It’s is approximated that 70% of people with prediabetes grows into type 2 diabetes. Even though, there are some aspects you can’t change such as age and genes, you can find steps to take to reduce the danger of diabetes.


Procedures on how to avoid getting diabetes.

Avoid refined carbs and sugar.

Taking refined carbs and sugar increases the chances of developing diabetes.


Your body rapidly cracks these foods down into small sugar which are absorbed into your bloodstream. Body cells for individuals diagnosed with prediabetes are reluctant to insulin action causing the level of sugar to remain high.


As a result, pancreas secrets more insulin to regulate blood glucose to normal level. Eventually, this can lead to advanced higher blood glucose (sugar) and insulin level, until the condition grows into type 2 diabetes. Avoiding sugary and refined carb enables you to reduce the risks of diabetes.


 Regular work outs

Frequent exercise improves the level of insulin response of your cells. Research shows that most people who are at risk of getting diabetes are obese and overweight .Different types of exercise can decrease insulin resistance a.


Therefore, it is advisable to choose physical exercises that you like in order to engage and stick to them daily and for long period. Daily exercise may prevent you from diabetes.


Drinking water

Water is a natural beverage that a person can drink.


Consuming water mostly enables you to avoid sugary beverages. Research shows that increased water consumption enables better blood glucose control and insulin secretion and sensitivity, thus reducing chances of diabetes.


Drinking tea or coffee

Even though water should be the main beverage, research proposes coffee or tea may help you avoid diabetes.


Regular coffee consumption reduce the risk of getting type 2 diabetes. Tea and coffee have a compound called polyphenols that may secure the body against diabetes.


Green tea contains a unique compound that help to reduce blood glucose (sugar) and increase insulin secretion, thus reducing risk of diabetes.

Taking natural herbs

There are a number of herbs that can boost the level of insulin sensitivity.


Curcumin and berberine  they have been used  as a traditional Chinese medicine  for many years ,research have shown that berberine and curcumin are active  at reducing blood sugar.


They increase insulin secretion and  lowering the release of glucose, the may theoretically  assist people with prediabetes  avoid  diabetes.


References

  1. American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Basics Accessed 5/3/2017.
  2. The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. What is Diabetes? Accessed 5/3/2017.
  3. American Diabetes Association. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2018;41(suppl 1):S22–S24.