types of cancer

Cancer is the unrestrained growth of body cells.


According to statistics by the World Heath Organization (WHO), cancer  is the leading killer disease across the world.


There are different types of cancer including; bladder cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, leukemia and cervical cancer.

Currently there is no cure for cancer, however diagnose and successful treatment at early stage can improve individuals overall health and increase their lifespan.


This article will cover breast cancer,prostate cancers and Leukemia. 


Breast cancer

Breast cancer is the cancer that forms in the breast cells.

Breast cancer is very common in women compared to men.


Types of breast cancer


Inflammatory breast cancer:  inflammatory breast cancer occurs when cancer cells accumulate and block the lymphatic vessel in the skin covering the breast, causing swelling of the breast.


Inflammatory breast cancer is rare.


Recurrent breast cancer. This is the type of breast cancer that resurges after primary treatment. Essentially, it occurs if the primary treatment fails to eliminate all cancer cells, which then proliferate after a while. 


Male breast cancer:  This is very uncommon type of cancer. Men detected with breast cancer at an early stage have very high chances of cure. Men breast cancer is common to aging men, although one may suffer from this type of cancer at any age. 


Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS):  This is the appearance of abnormal cells inside the milk duct of the breast.

DCIS is noninvasive and has stunted chances of becoming encroaching.


Invasive lobular carcinoma. Is type of breast cancer that starts in the lobules of the breast (milk producing glands)


Signs and symptoms of breast cancer

  • Breast lump that feels different from the surrounding breast tissue
  • Change in the size and shape of breast appearance
  • New upend nipple
  • Peeling and flaking of the pigmented area of the skin surrounding areola(nipple)
  • Pitting of the skin over your breast (orange skin)

Factors that enhance risk of breast cancer

  • Being a female
  • Age. 
  • Inherited genes
  • Obesity
  • Exposure to Radiation
  • Postmenopausal hormone therapy

Prostate cancers

Prostate cancer is  the type of cancer that  appears in the a small –walnut  shaped gland (prostate) that produces  semen’s and transport   sperms .Prostate cancer is the most common type of  cancer .Early  diagnosed of prostate cancer can be  treated.


Symptoms

Early stages of prostate cancer has no sign or symptoms but advanced stage of prostate cancer has symptoms such as

  • painful urination
  • reduced force in the stream of urine
  • blood in semen
  • discomfort  in  the pelvic  area
  • bone pain
  • erectile dysfunction

Risk factors for prostate cancer

  • Race. 
  • Ageing. 
  • Family history.
  • Obesity. 

Prevention

  • Choose a healthy diet. Avoid high carb food and focus on choosing a variety of fruits and vegetables and whole grains.  Fruits antioxidants that reduces risk of prostate cancer.
  • Consult your doctor about the increased chances of prostates cancer. Gentlemen with high chances of prostate cancer should consider medications and other treatments that will help them lessen chances of prostate cancer. Research suggests that 5-alpha reductase inhibitors and Avodart may lessen the general chances of prostate cancer.
  • Regular exercises. Exercise boost your health and improves mood.

Leukemia

Leukemia is cancer of the body blood –forming tissues (bone marrow and lymphatic system). It involves white blood cells. Leukemia occurs in commonly in children but it is equally prominent in adults. 


Classification of leukemia

Acute leukemia. In this type of cancer, abnormal blood cells are blasts. They are not in position to perform their normal functions and they increase rapidly thus the disease worsens faster. Acute leukemia needs aggressive.


Lymphocytic leukemia. This type of leukemia affects lymphocytes.


Myelogenous leukemia: This type of leukemia affects myeloid cells. It is characterized by increased red blood cells, white blood cells and platelet –producing cells.


Types of leukemia

Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL):  It is common type of leukemia in young children, however; it can appear to adults is common in adults but is also ours in children


Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) .It is a type of leukemia that occurs mostly in men.


Acute myelogenous leukemia. This is type of leukemia appears in both adults and children and it is the most common type of acute leukemia in adults


Symptoms of leukemia

  • fever and chills
  • tenacious fatigue and weakness
  • persistent infections
  • losing weight uncontrollably
  • easy bleeding
  • recurrent nosebleeds

Risks factors of leukemia

Factors that may increase chances of developing leukemia include: 

  • Active cancer treatment. individuals who are constantly exposed to radiation and chemotherapy  have higher chances of developing leukemia
  • Genetic mutation. Genetic disorder plays part in developing leukemia. Genetic disorders such as down syndrome are related with  high rate of leukemia
  • Exposure to chemicals: Exposure to chemicals such as benzene increases the chances of developing Leukemia.
  • Family history. Since cancer is hereditary if one family member has leukemia, there are you have increases chances of leukemia?

References  

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bladder-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20356104

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23245604

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